Analysis of the Evolution Process of Enterprise Value Chain under the Vision of Intelligent Manufacturing

Abstract After the "financial 4.0" in Germany, after thinking about the global financial crisis, in order to restore the economy as soon as possible and cultivate new economic growth points, western developed countries have returned to the real economy. The United States proposed "again
After thinking about the global financial crisis triggered by Germany's "Industry 4.0" , in order to restore the economy as soon as possible and foster new economic growth points, Western developed countries have returned to the real economy. The United States proposed "re-industrialization" and introduced the "Revitalization of the US Manufacturing Framework" and the "National Strategic Plan for Advanced Manufacturing". Germany and Japan and other manufacturing powers are not far behind. Germany has formulated the "German High Technology Strategy 2020" and launched Industry 4.0; Japan has proposed "Industry 4.1J", an upgraded version of German Industry 4.0, which is derived from Japan.
At the same time, China has also formulated a series of strategic plans to foster the development of strategic emerging industries, industrial transformation and upgrading, and integration of two industries, and accelerate the process of transforming from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power.
Obviously, the United States, Germany, Japan, including China, these four manufacturing powers are launching a fierce competition to seize the commanding heights of the global manufacturing industry chain. What is this commanding height? Su Bo, the then deputy minister of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, said: "The competition between countries and the economic competition between countries is essentially the competition of equipment manufacturing between countries. At present, the big countries In the competition of high-end equipment manufacturing, we can say that it is the core of the big country game." Su Bo said that the high-end equipment manufacturing is actually the manufacture of intelligent equipment.
In this context, Germany introduced "Industry 4.0" (Industry 4.0). Industry 4.0 was originally one of the ten future projects in the German High Technology Strategy 2020, originally presented at the 2011 Hannover Messe in Germany. At the time, Professor Wolfgang Walster, Director and CEO of the German Artificial Intelligence Research Center, mentioned in the opening ceremony that the fourth industrial revolution should be promoted through media such as the Internet of Things to improve the manufacturing level. In April 2013, at the Hannover Messe in Germany, the German “Industry 4.0 Working Group” published the final report – “Protecting the Future of German Manufacturing: Recommendations for Implementing the “Industry 4.0” Strategy”.
German Industry 4.0 is different from the third industrial revolution in the United States. According to German academic and industrial interpretation, Industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution led by intelligent manufacturing after mechanization (1.0), electrification (2.0) and automation (3.0).
Obviously, intelligent manufacturing is an inevitable trend in the development of the world's manufacturing industry, and it is the commanding height of the industrial chain that is a strong country. A survey of “German Industry 4.0 Strategic Prospects” shows that in Germany, 47% of companies are actively involved in the Industry 4.0 strategy; 18% are participating in the research of the Industry 4.0 strategy; 12% of companies claim that they The strategy has been put into practice. German companies have entered the industry 4.0 in a big way, and have become the focus of the world for a time.
Facing the challenge of German Industry 4.0, the president of a Japanese subsidiary of the Japanese machinery manufacturer said with a sigh of relief: "Germany, which originally had advantages in design and engineering, is now redefining the proper form of manufacturing. Capture the potential growth market. We can't do anything like this."
But an expert from the German Machinery Industry Alliance (VDMA) explained: "With regard to traditional manufacturing, it is only a matter of time before companies in Asian countries such as China catch up. So we are exploring other roads that will not be overtaken by Asian companies. From his words, it can be seen that the Germans are more worried about the Chinese manufacturing of "Dragon World".
At the same time as Germany launched the industry 4.0, the United States and other manufacturing powers to implement the "re-industrialization" strategy, China is also thinking about how to transform and upgrade, how to transform from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power.
The idea of ​​transformation was put forward as early as the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period, but it has not been transferred yet, and now the task of "upgrading" the industry has been proposed. The problems that have not been solved in the past are intertwined with new ones, which has made China's manufacturing encounter unprecedented challenges.
On the one hand, China's manufacturing industry faces long-standing problems such as insufficient independent innovation capability, lack of core technology, low added value of products, low product quality and low production efficiency, low resource utilization efficiency, and unreasonable industrial structure; On the other hand, in recent years, problems such as the rapid rise in the prices of labor, land and resources, and other factors of production have been encountered.
In the international market, high-end manufacturing has returned to developed countries, and low-end manufacturing has gradually begun to shift to developing countries with lower manufacturing costs than China. China's manufacturing is facing a double attack between developed countries and developing countries in Europe and the United States. It has already fallen into the embarrassing situation of "high-end failure and low-end melee", and the status of "world factory" is seriously threatened.
A more important issue is that China's manufacturing has fallen into a comprehensive overcapacity situation, accompanied by institutional barriers that constrain transformation and upgrading.
In the face of unprecedented predicament, where does China manufacture? How to transform from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power? The "Made in China 2025" plan came into being in this context. This plan has a relationship with the major consulting research project of the “Engineering Power Country Strategy Research” of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Qu Xianming, a member of the Manufacturing Powers Strategic Research Project Team and a member of the China Machinery Industry Federation's Expert Committee, told this reporter that at the beginning of the establishment of the Strong Country Strategic Research Project, the specifications were relatively high. The Minister of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Miao Wei, served as a consultant and the President of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Academician Zhou Ji and Academician Zhu Feng are the team leader. The goal is also very clear, that is, through research and report to determine the stage goals and targets of China becoming a manufacturing power, and propose guidelines and strategic countermeasures to enter the ranks of manufacturing powers.
At the beginning of 2013, the research group of the major consulting research project “Manufacturing Power Country Strategy Research” was formally established. During the research period of the research group, Germany launched the “Industry 4.0” strategic plan at the Hannover Messe (2013). This marks Germany's opening of the fourth industrial revolution dominated by smart manufacturing.
The Germans took the lead and made the academicians and experts of the "Strength of Strategic Research in Manufacturing" project realize that China also needs its own "Industry 4.0" medium and long-term planning.
Qu Xianming said that in January 2014, after making a phased report to the Vice Premier of the State Council, Ma Kai, the project team first proposed the idea of ​​formulating the "Made in China 2025" plan for the Chinese manufacturing industry to enter the world around 2025. The ranks of the powerful countries provide strategic guidance. This proposal was affirmed by Ma Kai and clearly obliged the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology to take the lead in coordinating with the relevant ministries to prepare the "Made in China 2025" plan.
As a result, the major consulting research project “Making a Powerful Country Strategy Research” became the compilation of “Made in China 2025”. The lead unit was upgraded to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology by the Chinese Academy of Engineering. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, led by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Finance, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, and more than 20 departments of the State Council, organized more than 50 academicians and more than 100 experts to jointly prepare the Chinese version of Industry 4.0 - "Made in China 2025" 》.
The Chinese government attaches great importance to German Industry 4.0. In March 2014, when President Xi Jinping visited Germany, he published a signed article in the “Frankfurt Report” focusing on the German “Industry 4.0” strategy. This is considered to be the clarion call for China to accelerate the launch of the "Made in China 2025" plan.
On October 10, 2014, during the visit of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang to Germany, China and Germany issued the "Sino-German Cooperation Action Plan: Building Innovation" and announced that the two countries will carry out "Industry 4.0" cooperation. Both China and Germany believe that the cooperation process should be promoted by enterprises themselves, and the two governments provide policy support.
Water is everywhere. On March 5 this year, Premier Li Keqiang put forward the grand idea of ​​implementing "Made in China 2025" during the "two sessions". The research results completed by 50 academicians and more than 100 experts, the State Council finally condensed it into 20,000 words officially released. Although there are not many words, the official said that this is China’s top-level design from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power, and it is the first decade of action to implement the strategy of manufacturing a strong country.
Minister of Industry and Miao Ministry said, if one sentence "Made in China 2025", that is China from a big manufacturing country into a manufacturing powerhouse. The path to transform into a manufacturing powerhouse is a combination of two, and the main direction is intelligent manufacturing. We will take 30 years and go in three steps to complete the transformation of manufacturing big countries to manufacturing powers. To accomplish this transformation, "Made in China 2025" identified four principles, five principles, and implement five projects, major breakthroughs ten areas.
From the "research on the strategy of manufacturing a strong country" to the "Made in China 2025", driven by the national strategic needs, the government has a new understanding of the "Chinese dream" that has changed from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power.

The technology is top-notch, but the market place "Made in China 2025" was initiated by the research institute and finally compiled by the government. However, its landing must be accompanied by enterprises, and even by the enterprise. "2025 Made in China" landing issues, strategic research manufacturing power project team members, former Vice Minister of Ministry of Machinery Industry Mr. Lu in the interview with our correspondents asked for: "Now the strategy there, but how to become strategic planning, planning Turning into a plan, the plan becomes an action? That is how to land it and fall to the enterprise level?” Obviously, Lu Yan’s question has not been a good answer.
Implementing government strategies, plans, or plans at the enterprise level is a breeze in the planned economy, but not necessarily in a market economy. Work as planned economy, the government and businesses do not consider the question of whether profits; act according to market economy, the government can not consider the relationship between inputs and outputs of the profit and loss issues, but if the company does not consider these issues, then it will be in the market competition In the middle of a defeat.
The main line of "Made in China 2025" is the integration of two technologies, namely the deep integration of two IT (IndustryTechnology and Information Technology), the main direction is intelligent manufacturing. In order to compete for the commanding heights of the manufacturing industry chain of intelligent manufacturing, as early as January this year, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the "Intellectual Manufacturing Pilot Demonstration Special Action Implementation Plan", which blew the clarion call for Chinese enterprises to enter into intelligent manufacturing. The "program" OK: "Since 2015, in good basic conditions and urgent needs of key areas, industries, preference pilot and demonstration projects from the base to reach two of enterprise integration management system standards requirements, the classification to carry out process manufacturing, discrete manufacturing, intelligent equipment and products, intelligent manufacturing six pilot demonstration projects of new formats action new model of intelligent management, intelligent services after implementation of 3 consecutive years, according to a pilot demonstration cases, do the appropriate adjustments and deepen. "
Considering the current situation of the coexistence of Chinese manufacturing 1.0, 2.0, and 30, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology seems to be carefully groping for the path to a manufacturing power that suits the national conditions. At the beginning of June, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology announced the first batch of 94 pilot projects for intelligent manufacturing (the original plan of more than 30 projects, the results exceeded 60 projects), including 20 basic research projects, 74 industrial projects. There were 77 companies involved in the pilot, involving nearly 20 listed companies. The announcement of this pilot project marks the full launch of "Made in China 2025".
The special action of the intelligent manufacturing pilot demonstration organized by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology is essentially calling for enterprises to attack the research and development of intelligent technology so that Chinese enterprises can move to the high end of the industrial value chain. However, for a business, the problem is not that simple. Explaining with Michael Porter's value chain theory, technology research and development is important, but it is only one of the value creation activities in the enterprise value chain, not all. In the entire value chain of R&D, manufacturing, and marketing services, although technology research and development has high added value, if a technical invention cannot be industrialized and commercialized, then the company's investment in research and development of this technology is wasted. Therefore, when conducting technology research and development, enterprises must first think about whether technology and market can be integrated and become a product that satisfies consumers. A good company, on the one hand, must pursue technology and on the other hand, it must ensure the market position.
For the understanding of this problem, we can get inspired by the "smile curve" thinking framework.
The smile curve was proposed by Taiwan entrepreneur Shi Zhenrong in 1992. The smile curve is like the shape of a mouth when a person smiles, with both ends facing up. Applying the smile curve to the industry value chain, the added value is more reflected at both ends, namely R&D design and brand marketing, while the processing in the intermediate link has the lowest added value. Profits in the high-end segment account for 90-95% of the total product profit, and the bottom link is only 5-10%, or even 1-2%.
From the perspective of market competition, the left end of the smile curve, the R&D design belongs to global competition; the right end of the smile curve is mainly embodied in regional competition.
The smile curve reveals two main points: first, where the added value is, and second, the form of competition.
In the same year, Shi Zhenrong used this curve to explain the value chain of the computer industry. Later, the smile curve was applied to various fields.
If the smile curve is used to explain the special demonstration of smart manufacturing pilot demonstration, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology is obviously encouraging enterprises to develop and design the left end of the smile curve, and hopes that enterprises will participate in global competition. If companies have the ability to upgrade to smart manufacturing and combine technology with the market, then of course it is a good thing; but if the company does not have this strength, or lacks market support, it is another matter.
I have been exposed to such an equipment manufacturing enterprise. In the major project at the national level, the company exhausted the enterprise resources and independently developed a key component. However, after the project ended, the market was not so big. Put the company in trouble. This is the result of not considering the right end of the smile curve. After the technology, it failed to establish a market position. Such a company is not a case.
In the past, the Chinese government has formulated many strategies and plans. When the government greets, the company will flock to it. Today's overcapacity is closely related to this. The traditional industry is over-remaining. Even emerging industries such as solar energy (000591) and wind power are causing overcapacity under government planning.
A manufacturing company, in terms of business choices, should extend to both ends of the smile curve, but can not but consider their own actual situation, and only extend to the technical end. Manufacturers should not forget that the right end of the smile curve also has high added value, and the value of the left end is also achieved through the right end. Manufacturing companies should not forget that manufacturing is a value-added carrier in addition to its ability to create value.
In fact, even Shi Zhenrong did not ignore the role of manufacturing. In the book "Smile Curve - Creating the King of Sustainable Enterprise" published last year, he said: "Although the added value of manufacturing is low, I regard it as the carrier of 'neutral', from the left and right ends of the smile curve. Determining its value.” For example, he said that there is no difference in the materials used in a cup, but if the design is from the hands of the master, the value will be extraordinary, and the value-added carrier will show its importance at this time.
Due to the deepening of economic globalization, technology, especially high-tech competition, is essentially a global competition. Therefore, a company with strength at both ends of the smile curve is usually a super-multinational company, which is a worldwide one. Enterprises, such as the United States GE, Apple, Germany's Siemens, Japan's Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and so on. If a manufacturing company lacks the technology that can compete with these multinational companies, in fact, think more about how to make the manufacturing, and think about the right end of the smile curve is a more realistic choice. As for the indispensable technological progress of the enterprise, it is a long process of accumulation. For enterprises, it is necessary to rely on long-term continuous investment and efforts to obtain it, not by a campaign, in three or two years.
Li Jie, a professor at the University of Cincinnati in the United States, said that China’s industrial industry has been developing for decades. In the rapid jump, many manufacturing processes have been neglected, and the understanding of details has been lacking. For example, aircraft engines need to achieve safety, comfort, less noise, less vibration, which involves a lot of manufacturing details, including the experience sharing of many people. Therefore, if China wants to enter Industry 4.0, it is urgent to have more and deeper understanding of the manufacturing process.
"This time I can't copy it, because the sensors, software design and computer model inside are impossible to use, so there are big challenges." Li Jie said.
Regarding the work of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology to promote China Manufacturing 2025, Li Keqiang did not comment at the symposium on June 15. However, he said at the symposium: "In the past, traditional growth methods have been unsustainable, and traditional kinetic energy has also weakened. Why do we propose mass entrepreneurship and innovation? In fact, we are connected with China's 'smart'. Where does wisdom come from? It is the wisdom of all people. To innovate, to use Internet technology, use big data, cloud computing, etc., it must rely on mass entrepreneurship and innovation."
Obviously, Li Keqiang associates mass entrepreneurship and innovation with China's "intelligence". This is not exactly the same as the “pilot demonstration” of selecting a few key enterprises to do one thing. The Prime Minister thinks of “the public” and “the public”. He is very clear that to mobilize the masses and the masses and invest in smart manufacturing, we must rely on deepening reforms. Therefore, he asked all government departments to create conditions for mass entrepreneurship, innovation, Internet + and China manufacturing 2025 to decentralize and optimize services.
The prime minister seems to be looking for a company that is the mainstay of innovation and the government's return to service functions, such a road to smart manufacturing.
Whether it is German Industry 4.0, the US Industrial Internet, or "Made in China 2025", it has subverted the current manufacturing industry and redefines the proper form of manufacturing, but the three have the greatest commonality, that is, intelligent manufacturing.
Industry 4.0 intends to transform the manufacturing industry into an intelligent one by making full use of the embedded control system to realize the networking and mutual communication of innovative interactive production technologies, namely, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). CPS allows physical devices to have five functions of computing, communication, precise control, remote coordination and autonomy, thus realizing the fusion of the virtual network world and the real physical world. CPS can connect resources, information, objects and people to create Internet of Things and related services, and transform production plants into a smart environment.
Xu Jing, director of the Intelligent Manufacturing Institute of Huaxin Research Institute of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, told this reporter: "Industry 4.0 is based on CPS technology, with smart factories and intelligent production as the two themes, achieving vertical integration, horizontal integration and end-to-end End-integrated new manufacturing methods. Finally, a highly flexible, personalized and digital production and service model is established.” In this manufacturing model, traditional industry boundaries will disappear and new activities will be created. Fields and forms of cooperation. Now, the process of creating new value is changing, and the division of enterprise value chain and industry chain will be reorganized.
In the past, competition between enterprises can be roughly classified into two types: cost competition and differentiated competition. Cost competition is generally based on the same cost and price, who can provide greater value to customers, but in China it usually evolves into a price war under product homogenization; differentiated competition is generally brand competition. Whether cost competition or differentiated competition between enterprises is based on large-scale, high-volume production methods, even if the brand is differentiated, it is based on the premise of mass production of products.
Intelligent manufacturing is completely different from the traditional manufacturing method. As the “Internet concept extends to industrial production and service, new modes such as crowdsourcing design and personalized customization are promoted, which will promote real-time interaction between producers and consumers, enabling enterprises to produce The products are no longer a lot of convergence but more personalized." Miao Wei said.
The intelligent manufacturing production method seamlessly integrates the digital world with the physical world, and the cooperation in all aspects of the industrial chain has undergone significant changes. On the one hand, the internal vertical integration of the enterprise is deepened, that is, the deep integration of internal information flow, capital flow and logistics; on the other hand, in the horizontal integration from order to delivery, all links are closely linked, even End-to-end integration is achieved. Producers and consumers (users) and business partners can interact in real time, and the products produced by the company no longer converge in a large amount but are more personalized, that is, large-scale mass production shifts to personalized customized production. Under such a value chain, how is the value created by various value creation activities determined?
Smart manufacturing has changed the corporate value chain and will also change the competitive model among enterprises. Under this circumstance, the smile curve generated in the era of large-scale industrial mass production has its explanatory power in trouble. It cannot explain how the individualized demand is satisfied, nor can it explain where the high value-added in the new value chain is under the intelligent manufacturing production mode. .
Some people have also seen the dilemma of using the smile curve to explain the enterprise value chain under the intelligent manufacturing production mode. Therefore, many authors have declared that they say "goodbye to the smile curve", and some even assert that "the smile curve is dead." These predictions are a bit premature for real-world companies, but we do need to address the difficulties that the smile curve will face. The author believes that replacing the thinking curve of the smile curve with the dome arc thinking framework will be an effective choice for enterprises to cope with future competition.
This is a simplified dome arc chart. The bottom left end of the dome is manufactured, the right end is the market (consumer, user), and the dome is the design. In the dome arc, the design connects manufacturing and the market.
The design of the top of the dome is different from the design in the smile curve. The design in the smile curve usually refers to traditional product design, or traditional industrial design, designed for large-scale industrial mass production. The design in the dome arc is a design that contains innovative content and meets individual needs. It is a modern design born in the intelligent manufacturing mode.
Designed at the highest end of the value chain, design is the inevitable choice for intelligent manufacturing methods that meet individual needs. As the Germans emphasized, “The key to Industry 4.0 is to integrate software, sensors and communication systems into so-called physical network systems. At the intersection of this virtual world and the real world, people are increasingly conceiving, optimizing, Testing and designing the product.” What does this mean? In fact, this is the modern design that we emphasize in the era of smart manufacturing, which is at the end of the dome.
Regarding design, Professor Lu Yongxiang and Professor Liu Guanzhong of Tsinghua University have recently made new arguments. The dome design proposed by the author not only embraces the “innovative design” advocated by Academician Lu Yongxiang, but also covers the essence of industrial design defined by Professor Liu Guanzhong.
Lu Yongxiang said, “Design is the pre-conception, planning and planning of human beings to create innovative activities with purpose. It is a creative and integrated system of innovative creation. Design also transforms information knowledge and technological creativity into products, process equipment and management. The pilot and preparation of services and the value of manufacturing and service are the key to enhancing the ability of independent innovation.” Lu Yongxiang connects innovation and design together and calls it innovative design.
Lu Yongxiang believes that we can characterize the traditional design of the farming era as “Design 1.0”, the modern design of the industrial era as “Design 2.0”, and the innovative design of the global knowledge network era as “Design 3.0”. Correspondingly, "Industrial Design 1.0", which was born in the industrial age, will naturally evolve into "Industrial Design 2.0" in the era of global knowledge networks. They will be accompanied by innovations in global networks, science and technology, economic society, culture and art, ecological environment and other information and knowledge big data. The design of value concepts, method and technology, innovative design talent team and cooperation methods will continue to evolve.
It is slightly different from Lu Yongxiang's point of view. Liu Guanzhong believes that due to the refinement of the division of labor, there is a need for a profession to coordinate the relationship between demand, manufacturing, circulation and use. Theories, methods, procedures, techniques and management that consider the overall benefits of the system, as well as the activities of social mechanisms, are collectively referred to as industrial design. At the same time, industrial design is also an amendment of the overall culture of mankind to industrial civilization. Therefore, people and the environment must be taken into consideration, both human-oriented and ecological-based.
Liu Guanzhong said that an item is called a product in the factory, and it must solve the contradiction of manufacturing. When the mall is called a commodity, it must solve the contradiction of circulation; when it is called a daily necessities at home, it must solve the contradiction of use; and finally throw it into the garbage bin and call it waste. So, for the designer, what we see is not a machine tool, a cup, it is a big concept, but it should be the problem of manufacturing, circulation, use and recycling, that is, products, goods, supplies and waste.
Not long ago, the China Industrial Design Institute had a document introducing the industrial design website Core77 to interview 11 directors from the top industrial design in the United States. Among them, Scott Klinker of Cranbrook Art Institute said: "Industry has provided innovative products from traditional mass production to users of the network society.... The network society has emerged with a new design culture, grassroots, bottom-up, and industrial The top-down culture of the times is in stark contrast.” Some even say that we have entered a era of designer entrepreneurship, or the innovative makers of makers (Makers), and crowdfunding, a financial tool that matches it. It also allows the makers to directly contact the market, which is very different from the past.
Whether it is the innovative design defined by Lu Yongxiang, the industrial design described in Liu Guanzhong, or the new understanding of design by the top industrial design experts abroad, the explanation from the dome arc frame is in the case of a general adoption of intelligent manufacturing production methods. Design is the most important element in connecting manufacturing and marketing. The design here must include innovative elements to meet individual needs, as well as a people-oriented and environment-based philosophy. It is the sum of product design, process design, process design, business model design, etc. It can also be said that it is a way of thinking.
In the era of intelligent manufacturing, as enterprises achieve vertical integration, horizontal integration and end-to-end integration, real-time interaction between enterprises and suppliers and consumers, product development and design-production-marketing services will not be in value creation. There is a difference described in the smile curve. As manufacturing companies increase their productivity and service capabilities, their profits will increase. That is to say, manufacturing is no longer at the bottom of the value chain that only gets 5-10% or even 1-2% profit. Some people say that Industry 4.0 will eliminate Taobao. This is a bit exaggerated now, but we should indeed rethink the significance of Taobao in the intelligent manufacturing mode.
In the era of intelligent manufacturing, the smile curve can not explain the value creation of each link in the value chain, but the value creation activities derived from the curve of the Porter value chain have not been denied, that is, the Porter value chain is still in. Our task is to find out whether there is any high added value in the enterprise value chain under the intelligent manufacturing production mode. It is in this context that the dome arc came into being. As a case, Apple's success is a strong testimony to the dome arc. According to the interpretation of the dome arc, the design will be at the top of the dome arc in the new value chain, which is the highest added value, and is the main battlefield for enterprise competition in the era of intelligent manufacturing.

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