Solar LED street lighting to achieve how to adapt to local conditions?

The articles published in the 15th edition of the “Ten Thousand Cities and Ten Thousand References” listed the bright prospects for the use of solar LED street lights in the country to save a Three Gorges Dam each year, and listed the clean and pollution-free solar-LED street lights, saving electricity, The advantages of saving money, maintenance-free, etc., also listed shortcomings such as the short life span of high sodium. These views are not the same at this stage. Let's talk about our views on the above viewpoints:

First, the occurrence, development, and exit of things have their objective laws and there is a corresponding process.

Solar energy is the most direct, common, and cleanest energy source on the planet. Solar energy, as a huge renewable energy source, reaches the surface of the Earth every day and radiates about 250 million barrels of oil. It can be said to be inexhaustible and useless. exhaust. LED has long life, energy saving and so on. From an idealistic technical point of view, this is indeed a very attractive technology. The application foreground it depicts for us can be described as “perfect”: one-time investment, long life LED lamps with low maintenance cost have no cost of cable laying, are not restricted by geographical area, and can be as convenient as planting trees, have no electricity expenses, never-ending energy pollution, and so on. However, it does not mean that the aforementioned advantages can be used to immediately replace other light source energy sources. Incandescent light bulbs have been in use for more than 100 years since they were invented in the 19th century. Today, they have been disabled for a long time. Mercury lamps have not been used for a short time since they were invented, they have coexisted for a long period of time after the high-pressure sodium lamp has appeared for a long time and its technology has matured, indicating that the occurrence, development, and withdrawal of things have their own objective laws and have a corresponding The process, LED, solar energy is also the same, not to mention its own heat, pollution, standards, cost, conversion rate and many other unresolved bottlenecks, in terms of technology maturity can not be compared with the sodium lamp and other energy methods, even With the support of the government, what is the substitute? Just as a juvenile who is growing up, even if he is stronger, he cannot compete with an adult strong man. Solar energy and other related energy sources, high-pressure sodium lamps and LEDs and other possible next-generation light sources such as electrodeless lamps and sodium-meter energy-saving lamps may coexist for a long period of time and play their respective roles in their respective areas of expertise. With the development of technology, some of these energy sources and light sources have been gradually replaced, withdrawing from the historical stage, but this is a process that is not taken for granted short-term or instant.

Second, visitors to watch solar, LED and high-pressure sodium lamps Solar and LED are in the development phase, the development period means that technology has the advanced nature of development, but also shows that there are still some technical immaturity and deficiencies, solar energy The conversion rate, environmental protection and life of the battery, etc., LED heat dissipation and the problems caused by light failure, driving problems, lamp control issues, of course, there are the most important standard issues, it can be said that it is a fatal problem, this To a large extent, they restrict their rapid development. These problems have been discussed in a large number of related articles. Now we will talk about environmental protection and other issues.

(I) Environmental issues 1. LED's environmental LED has been considered by the world to be the most efficient artificial lighting technology known. It is generally believed that replacing traditional incandescent bulbs and fluorescent lamps with LED lamps is a very environmentally friendly practice. However, a recent survey conducted by the University of California, Irvine, showed that the environmental efficacy of using LED may be offset by the toxic substances contained in the LED. In the study, the school found that LED lamps on the market contained defects. Arsenic, chromium, lead and many other metals are non-equivalent. The toxic elements of some of the LED lamps have exceeded the relevant standards, and some have exceeded nearly ten times. In the Californian law, most LED lamps have been defined as toxic. Garbage, if treated using ordinary landfill methods, will contaminate soil and groundwater. If the LED lamp is broken, it may also cause damage to the human body that is in direct contact. The research report also pointed out that although LED's energy efficiency in the future is very high, it is by no means a completely environmentally friendly option. It must pay attention to its potential dangers. How to make technological breakthroughs and reduce pollution will be a major consideration in the development process of LED.

2. The environmental protection of solar energy When replacing traditional energy sources and adopting solar energy and green energy, we cannot only see the advantages of these energy sources and neglect their environmental pollution during the manufacturing process. According to statistics, photovoltaic power generation is now an environmental protection industry, but the polysilicon used in photovoltaic cells is higher than the “electric tiger” electrolytic aluminum used in the refining process. In addition, if the polysilicon production process is not handled properly, Exhaust gases such as silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen are also discharged. If silicon tetrachloride is not treated, it will dissolve into substances such as ** and contaminate the soil. At present, many places are not aware of the hazards of photovoltaic cells, blindly launched, causing great environmental pollution. In addition, the environmental protection of short-lived batteries is also a big problem at present (although there are new battery technologies with longer life spans, the environmental protection and cost issues have not yet been solved).

(b) Energy-saving issues The main purpose of energy-saving is to minimize the waste of the earth's resources and expand the use of new renewable energy sources. When adopting any kind of new technologies and new energy sources, the relationship between energy use and environmental protection must be considered in order to achieve true energy savings. Simply measure energy output or operation and maintenance costs as a measure of energy saving. , Look at the primary energy consumption form of the operation, without considering the energy consumption of this energy consumption form in the manufacturing and conversion process; do not consider the related issues of energy conservation, maintenance of the environment, and disposal of waste materials, and do not leave room for future generations. It will fundamentally violate the original intention of green energy conservation.

High-efficiency energy-saving means that sufficient lighting is consumed by consuming less electric power, thereby significantly reducing the emission of atmospheric pollutants from the power plant and achieving environmental protection. Solar energy and LED surface seem to save power in some aspects, but we think about energy saving from a holistic, systematic, and comprehensive perspective, if in its life cycle, its saved energy (electricity and related consumption of labor, materials, machinery costs Can be converted into relevant energy) to exceed the energy consumed in research, processing, and manufacturing, is the real energy saving, if it can not reach only the surface energy-saving or in the national sense is actually not energy-saving, can not be limited to the surface phenomenon. So look at whether it is energy-saving, start from scratch (in the life cycle, at this stage, solar energy and LED are really energy-saving, the author is also investigating, collecting).

(III) Lifetime Problems Many manufacturers have talked about the problem of life when promoting LED and solar energy. The LED light source is called longevity light, which means the light that never goes out. Solid cold light source, epoxy resin encapsulation, there is no loose part of the lamp body, there is no weakness of the filament luminescence, heat deposition, light decay, etc., the service life of up to 60,000 to 100,000 hours, 10 times longer than the traditional light source life the above. Solar panels also have a 25 to 30-year lifespan. When it comes to high-pressure sodium lamps, there are only 3,5 thousand hours of life. The following three types of life are analyzed below.

The author worked for a long period of time in the maintenance and design of street lamps and related statistics on the service life of sodium lamps. Taking the 250 sodium lamps produced by foreign brands and domestic joint ventures as an example, the author's city installed 134 sets of 250 roads in March 2003. Sodium lamp (12 meters high, voltage 223 to 230 volts, power factor 0.9 or so), and 65 bulbs replaced (including 2 other damaged) during the first half of 2008, according to the lifetime algorithm The average lifespan of the bulb was almost reached, and the number of operating hours reached 4150*5=20750 hours. Although it did not reach its nominal 24,000 hours, it was almost the same. High-pressure sodium lamp is in the mature period of technological improvement, stable performance, life expectancy of about 1.5 to 20,000 hours, international and domestic brands are good.

LED life can reach 60,000 to 100,000 hours, this refers only to the life of the LED chip, the life of the LED street lamp is affected by the heat dissipation, arrangement and drive power, the service life is not high, the current drive life is only 10,000 hours Point, poor quality of power supply life is shorter, and after the damage may directly burn LED lamp beads. Some manufacturers claim that their LED street lights can reach 3 to 50,000 hours of life is also worthy of discussion, 3 to 50,000 hours that is to run for 7 to 12 years (by street lamps should normally run every year 4150 hours), LED street lights from 04 In 2005, it began to invest in road lighting, and it will be 6 or 7 years. Who can see the LED street lights that are still operating normally after 6 or 7 years, not to mention the solar LED street lights. Of course, in the long run, after the LED street lamps have solved the technical problems of heat dissipation, arrangement, and driving power supply, their lifetime can be far beyond the current sodium lamps.

The lifetime problem in solar lighting system is mainly the battery life. Currently, the better GEL battery has a 100% DOD cycle life of about 600 cycles. Others include battery panels, inverters, and controllers. The problem of lifespan, as we all know, is not mentioned here.

(IV) Maintenance issues Many articles have mentioned that solar LED street lamps are maintenance-free or maintenance-free during their life cycle. In fact, this is only the propaganda of manufacturers. To be true, the street lamp maintenance workers all over the world must be unemployed. The maintenance of solar LED street lights is quite large.

1. The maintenance of solar facilities at this stage. Solar street lamps and ordinary street lamps in addition to the design, installation and other aspects of the requirements are more special and cumbersome, its maintenance also has special requirements, taking solar panels as an example, usually in the maintenance to check the azimuth angle of solar panels; Branches, leaves or other foreign objects (such as guano, if any must be immediately removed to prevent heat island effect, damage to the battery board) are directly blocked; whether in the shadow area of ​​other objects; whether the surface is cracked, dirty, dirty; Whether the body has cracks or whether the connection is flat is the scope of inspection. The battery is the biggest difficulty in maintenance. The solar battery and other equipment are usually installed in the base of the lamp post (installed in the hand well is not conducive to the battery's breathable, waterproof and anti-theft), because of its large size, it is impossible on the lamp pole base Add a large electrical door for replacement and repair (the size of the electrical door is too large, which will seriously endanger the security of the light pole, and also brings great risks to the safety of the equipment), and can only increase the size of the base, if maintenance and replacement are needed The lamp post is generally removed and lifted. After the work is completed, it is reinstalled. The service life of normal batteries is currently 2 to 3 years. During the life cycle, the charge and discharge conditions of the battery are often checked, and the electrodes or wires are always observed. Is there any corrosion or poor contact? It can be imagined how large this project is.

In addition to solar panels, solar panels, controllers, inverters, light control equipment, etc. are far more complex than sodium lamps. Therefore, in order to ensure the continuous operation of solar lighting devices, inspection and maintenance are usually based on a weekly cycle, during the day and night. For each device, at least one patrol is performed at once. After the wind, heavy rain, heavy snow, or after the rainy season, immediately check whether the battery panel has been displaced (the battery panel can be down, it is necessary to have a safety accident), and whether there is water in the control room and the battery room. After the accumulation of water, after the thunderstorm, it is necessary to check whether the device is working properly and whether its charge and discharge controller is damaged. Every autumn, the device must be thoroughly inspected. In particular, it is necessary to clean and wipe the light-transmitting parts of the lighting fixtures and solar modules. Do not solve the major problems in the solar lighting system, such as the photoelectric conversion rate, the volume and life of the battery, the maintenance will far exceed the maintenance of the high pressure sodium lamp.

2. The maintenance of LED street lights at this stage. The maintenance of LED street lights involves many related aspects, among which the standardization, modularization, plug-in type, heat dissipation, driving power, etc. have been discussed in the previous articles and articles of other authors, and are not listed here anymore. Let's talk about the light sources below. The problems involved in the replacement time, difficulties, and possible future measures.

Most LED lighting sources are made up of 1 watt or so of LED particles (there are few high-power 10W and 20W LED lamps). The damage of the particles is difficult to determine by the naked eye without passing the instrument. , And how bad can we take replacement measures? This has brought a lot of difficulties to the maintenance work, which has severely restricted the speed of maintenance. In addition, with the development of technology, LED faced with the technical bottlenecks of standardization, modularization, plug-in type, heat dissipation, and driving power, the constant improvement, standardization, uniformity and compatibility have been continuously improved, and the life of LED street lamps is continuously approaching the ideal. As a result, the degree of light flux emitted or the light decay limit will be the biggest problem facing the maintenance of LED street lamps. After running for a period of time, the LED light source has its luminous flux drop, the light decline step by step, and the light declines to a certain extent. When the LED lighting source can no longer meet the minimum requirements for road illumination or brightness, if it is not replaced, the lighting level will be seriously affected. There is a very large potential safety hazard for traffic and traffic. With the increase in the degree of light failure, the risk of hidden dangers is also greater. Of course, the night lighting effect of the city is also declining; but it is still shining and still running. How to judge the light energy emitted by it or its degree of light decay can no longer meet the minimum requirements of road lighting illumination or brightness, to the extent that it must be replaced? If the illuminance meter is tested with every lamp, this kind of work maintenance method will cause the maintenance personnel to pose considerable risks while working. On the other hand, the workload is extremely huge. It requires a lot of manpower, machinery, and related illuminance meters. There are also a lot of equipment investment in the luminance meter, which is unbearable for the maintenance unit; if the vehicle is tested with illumination or brightness, it is convenient, but for each lamp, the test is rough, after the test In order to count and summarize the street lights that may need to be replaced, the situation such as road names, pole numbers, power levels, and types (whether it is motorway lights or non-lighting lights) is fed back to the maintenance personnel, and the maintenance work is then organized. The time period is not too short. The procedure is cumbersome and the timely rate of maintenance will not be very high. Similarly, investing in an illuminance or brightness test vehicle, the equipment and operating costs will not be low, and there will be a lot of fixed personnel. How to solve the LED street light attenuation control (that is, light attenuation to a certain extent, can not meet the minimum requirements of road lighting, automatically stop its operation, waiting for the replacement of the light source control methods or equipment) is a big problem in the future, Is the key to solving its maintenance.

Third, moderate, appropriate promotion of solar LED street lights.

With the rapid development of solar photovoltaic power generation technology and LED high-efficiency lighting technology, solar street lights and solar LED street lights have also been popularized and applied in the vast cities and rural areas, but at the same time, they have also exposed some shortcomings and shortcomings, especially in the The application of urban roads on the main roads is not satisfactory due to its illumination and reliability under continuous rainy weather conditions and ordinary maintenance. The main reason for this is that the conversion efficiency of solar cells is only about 17%, while road lighting solar cells The required power is high, and the quality and life of the associated equipment cannot reach the relevant requirements. This is the cause of unsatisfactory reasons. Before the difficulties that have been temporarily solved but not solved, the installation of solar LED street lamps should be appropriate. In an appropriate manner.

1. Install solar LED street lights according to local conditions. First of all, the lack of sunshine or deficient areas should not be installed. Cities with high-rise buildings and tall roads should be installed as little or as little as possible. Second, the energy provided by solar LED street lights cannot currently satisfy the requirements of expressways, main and secondary roads, and welcome roads. Illumination needs, the proposed city if installed, suitable for installation in the courtyard, parks, green areas or landscapes, these places are scarce at night on rainy days, and even no one. There are no major effects of light or dark spots. If you are installing on a road in a city, it is recommended to use a complementary lighting method to the mains. Using this method, you only need to consider the electricity demand that has the longest sunshine in a year and needs the shortest lighting time in the night, and the rest can be The mains power is supplemented, the solar cell efficiency is utilized most, the battery capacity can be used the least, the system cost is least, and the reliability of the solar energy system can reach the highest, which is particularly beneficial to the solar LED street light on the road that the city originally laid the lighting cable. The refitting is more advantageous for cities with street lights powered by dual circuits. Of course, the use of solar energy and utility power complement each other to do the relevant work if you want to consider the lighting maintenance requirements of different roads, city power cut-point selection. Thirdly, solar LED street lights can be properly installed in areas with scarce power sources such as urban external areas, rural areas, islands, scenic spots, and mountain tops or emergency lighting for disaster relief, which can solve the problem of lighting.

2. Install solar LED street light modestly. Solar energy and LED are all new technologies, new energy sources, and new light sources. They are destined to occupy an important position in the future, but they are still in the development stage. They have low luminous efficiency (currently lower than the high pressure sodium lamp 140LM/W), large light decay, and inconsistent light color. , Color temperature deviation, secondary light distribution processing level is not high, the driving power supply design is not perfect, its life is far below the life of LED, solar cell conversion efficiency is low, the battery life is short, synchronous control and other problems need to be solved . We should objectively and rationally look at the development and growth of solar LED lighting, look to its future prospects, adopt a positive and enthusiastic attitude, support and promote its development, and improve and enhance its application. At the same time, solar LED street lamps have deficiencies at the current stage. However, it still has its unique advantages, such as the application of solar LED lighting in some special occasions (islands, scenic spots, mountain tops, remote locations, etc.), landscape lighting (garden lights, lawn lamps, etc.), and solar energy system regions that may be popularized in the future. The application of centralized power supply in the network (Wuxi is already in test operation), etc., the advantages are still obvious, and the demonstration application also has positive significance. But it should not be blindly and disorderly promotion. Growth requires a process. If you can't treat LED lighting correctly, you can talk about large-scale applications nowadays, which may lead to excessive investment, wasted investment, and too many hidden problems for the future.

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