Mechanical equipment is the fundamental guarantee for the construction of modern construction projects. The safe construction of mechanical equipment is the key link to ensure the smooth implementation of construction projects. The establishment of institutionalized safety management standards is an effective measure to ensure the safe construction of engineering.
Modern construction engineering construction is inseparable from construction machinery and equipment, machinery and equipment is the necessary guarantee to improve construction efficiency and economic benefits. Safeguarding the normal and safe use of mechanical equipment and preventing accidents of construction equipment is an important part of the project management of each construction unit. Based on years of on-site construction experience, the requirements for ensuring safe construction measures and management are discussed.
1. Strictly implement national and industry regulatory documents
The safe construction of construction machinery and equipment shall comply with the relevant laws, regulations and normative documents of the national and industry standards.
The relevant standards and specifications that should be implemented at the moment are â€œSafety Technical Regulations for Construction Machinery Useâ€ JGJ33-2001, â€œBuilding Construction Safety Inspection Standardsâ€ JGJ59-99, â€œSafety Technical Specifications for Temporary Electricity Use at Construction Sitesâ€ JGJ46-2005, â€œArchitecture Mechanical technical test procedures" JGJ34-88, "wire rope scrapping standards" GB5972-86. All construction enterprises and units must strictly follow this implementation.
Second, establish on-site rules and regulations
An effective on-site management system should be established in the on-site mechanical management of construction enterprises. The key terms are as follows:
1. The main body of each party on the construction site shall be equipped with full-time (part-time) mechanical equipment management personnel, responsible for the safety management of the construction machinery and equipment.
2. The mechanical equipment used at the construction site must strictly implement the relevant standards and specifications.
3. The construction site shall establish corresponding rules and regulations for safety management of mechanical equipment (safety management duties, safety technology disclosure, handover, maintenance, inspection, data management, etc.).
4. Main mechanical equipment (including tower crane, construction elevator, truck crane, crawler crane, tire crane, mast crane, gantry crane, material hoist, high-level work basket, concrete mixing building (station), concrete pump , concrete pump trucks, loaders, excavators, pile-driving machinery, etc.) The three custom-made degrees of fixed, fixed, and post-responsibility are implemented. The general mechanical equipment implements the shifting system of the team leader and multi-shift operations.
5. There must be practical and safe technical measures for the use of mechanical equipment at the construction site. There must be a special plan for the construction and temporary construction of the site; the installation and dismantling of lifting equipment (tower cranes, construction lifts, material hoists, etc.) Construction plan; special construction plan for lifting and hoisting operations, and emergency measures and rescue plans for mechanical equipment accidents should be prepared.
7. The installation and dismantling of lifting machinery (tower cranes, construction elevators, material hoists, etc.) must be carried out by the construction administrative department in charge of the corresponding construction site crane installation engineering professional contracting qualification and safety production license .
8. The mechanical equipment on the construction site should be used correctly and safely. It is strictly prohibited to use equipment and overload.
9. Any personnel shall not order the operator to operate in violation of regulations, and the operator shall have the right to refuse to execute the command in violation of the regulations.
10. Mechanical equipment, electrical equipment and construction machinery must not be operated with disease. If abnormal conditions are found during operation, the power supply should be cut off immediately, the machine should be shut down for inspection, and the fault should be eliminated in time.
11. It is strictly forbidden to scrub and repair when the equipment is running. It should be listed when repairing, and it should be carried out by professionals according to the conditions and relevant standards and specifications stipulated in the original manufacturer's instructions. No substitute parts or modification or modification should be used arbitrarily. Mechanical equipment should be routinely maintained and regularly inspected on a regular basis. Special equipment should be self-inspected at least once a month and recorded. The safety accessories, safety protection devices, measurement and control devices and related auxiliary instruments and meters of special equipment shall be regularly verified and repaired, and records shall be made. The periodic inspection requirements shall be submitted to the special equipment inspection and testing agency one month before the expiration of the safety inspection in accordance with the periodic inspection requirements of the safety technical specifications. Special equipment that has not been inspected regularly or fails to pass the inspection shall not continue to be used.
12. Equipment that has been deactivated for a long time on the construction site must be dismantled and sealed.
Third, the mechanical management project responsibility system
The person in charge of the project is the first responsible person for the safe use of the mechanical equipment of the project. It should be fully responsible for the safe use of the mechanical equipment of the project; the mechanical equipment management personnel of the project are responsible for the safe use management of the project machinery and equipment; the mechanical equipment operators of the project are responsible for the safe operation of the mechanical equipment of the project. Be responsible for.
1. Implement the guidelines, policies, regulations, rules and regulations governing the management of machinery and equipment by the state, localities and enterprises.
2, the implementation of the equipment needs to plan, responsible for organizing the equipment in and out of the field, the transfer of mechanical equipment to the site to do a good job of handover and installation and acceptance, and do a good job of acceptance records, establish and improve the on-site mechanical equipment account.
3. Do a good job in the safety technology of equipment use, verify the validity of the operation permit of the operator, and supervise the operation of the operator according to the equipment operation rules.
4. Organize daily inspections of the mechanical equipment used at the construction site, weekly inspections, monthly comprehensive inspections, timely organization and maintenance of mechanical equipment, and elimination of safety hazards of mechanical equipment.
5. Do a good job of sorting the original records and technical archives of equipment use and maintenance.
6. Responsible for handling general mechanical accidents, cooperating with serious accidents, major accidents, major accidents, and special major accidents.
Fourth, the basic conditions for entering the construction site machinery and equipment
For the mechanical equipment entering the construction site, whether the source of the mechanical equipment is the company's own mechanical equipment, or the external rental machinery and equipment (including the subcontracting unit rental machinery and equipment), the subcontracting unit own mechanical equipment must be included in the project total package safety management system And implement supervision and management.
1. Strictly establish the access conditions for mechanical equipment rental units. The mechanical equipment leasing unit must be a legal person organization with a business license (business scope including lease) and other licenses, strong economic and technical strength, and a sound safety management system.
2. The equipment to be leased must be the manufacturer specified by the state. The leased equipment must have the manufacturer's manufacturing license (production license) and the product certificate, the instruction manual, the electrical schematic diagram and related files and technical materials. Special equipment shall have special equipment manufacturing (production) license, product quality certificate, installation and use of maintenance instructions, inspection certificate or identification report and other documents.
3. It is strictly forbidden to use mechanical equipment and construction equipment that are eliminated by the state, are forbidden to use, endanger the production safety, fail to meet the safety technical standards or are not equipped with safety protection devices.
4. The mechanical equipment entering the field must be in good condition. The accessories, random tools and spare parts should be complete. All kinds of limit, safety protection devices, instruments, meters, alarms and signal devices are complete, sensitive and effective. Mechanical and electrical safety performance and safety protection devices comply with relevant national standards, regulations and standards.
5. The hoisting machinery equipment developed for the special engineering construction must have the design drawing, design calculation book and processing technology diagram. The technical department of the enterprise organizes the expert demonstration and appraisal, and the relevant departments are inspected according to the safety technical conditions. Only approved by the person can be put into use.
7. For mechanical equipment entering the market, the contractor of the two parties (the entrusted agent) shall sign a contract for the lease of machinery and equipment.
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The contract should clarify the safety production responsibilities of both parties.
V. Safety requirements for on-site construction of mechanical equipment
Before the mechanical equipment meeting the safe construction conditions enters the construction site, the construction preparation work must be completed in accordance with the construction organization design and the general plan of the construction.
1. The foundation (seat) of the mechanical equipment on the construction site must be stable and meet the factory specifications and design requirements. The installation and parking space should be smooth, clean, free of obstacles and well drained.
2. The working place of mechanical equipment should meet the safety requirements. Peripheral work and maintenance space shall be left around the machinery and equipment. The working passage shall be kept open. The storage of various facilities and materials shall comply with the requirements of safety and hygiene and the general plan of the construction, and meet the fire safety requirements.
3. Auxiliary facilities required for the use of mechanical equipment, the foundation of mobile cranes, fixed cranes, construction lifts and concrete foundations for gantry and derrick material hoists shall comply with the acceptance criteria, installation, parking and protection of mechanical equipment. Shed erections should meet the requirements for use and safety.
4. The construction site should be equipped with mechanical equipment repair workshops or repair points (including small material storage) and operator lounges.
5. The machinery and equipment entering the construction site must implement â€œone machine, one brake, one leak, one boxâ€.
6. The crane is strictly prohibited from working over the overhead line of unprotected external power. When the crane, concrete pump truck and pile machinery are working near the external power line, the minimum safety distance between any part or the edge of the object to be lifted at the maximum deflection and the edge of the overhead line shall comply with the following table. If the requirements are not met, insulation isolation measures shall be taken and a warning sign shall be hung.
Safety distance (m) <11035110220330500
Along the vertical direction 1.53.04.05.06.07.08.5
1.52.03.54.06.07.08.5 in the horizontal direction
6. Inspection and acceptance of mechanical equipment before construction
1. Before the mechanical equipment is put into use, it must be tested and commissioned according to the requirements of the factory instruction manual and the â€œConstruction Machinery Technical Test Regulationsâ€, and the test acceptance record should be filled in. After passing the test acceptance, it can be used after the handover procedure.
2. The mechanical equipment shall be installed by the unit of the corresponding equipment installation engineering professional contracting enterprise qualification.
3. After the installation of the lifting machinery and equipment is completed, the general contractor, the user, the rental unit and the installation unit shall jointly check and accept. After the acceptance is passed, the local special equipment supervision and inspection agency must be submitted for inspection (including acceptance inspection and periodic inspection). , you can use the "Safety License". If the acceptance is unqualified, it shall not be used.
4. The construction site must formulate a safety inspection system for mechanical equipment, which is checked by the general contractor and subcontractor, and the self-inspection and supervision of the on-site mechanical equipment management personnel.
5, mechanical equipment inspection form: daily inspection, weekly inspection, monthly comprehensive inspection, etc., after inspection found that there are abnormal conditions, must be handled in a timely manner to eliminate unsafe factors, it is strictly prohibited to operate with disease.
6. The construction site will organize a monthly comprehensive inspection every month. The inspection contents include: metal structure and welds with or without deformation and cracking; fastening of connecting bolts; safety devices, brakes, clutches, etc.; hooks, grabs, wire ropes, pulley blocks, rigging, spreaders, etc. Whether there is damage; whether there are abnormalities in distribution lines, current collecting devices, switchboards, switches, controllers, etc.; whether the hydraulic protection device and the pipeline connection are normal; the jacking mechanism, whether the main force components are abnormal or damaged; the safety of the track Status, etc. If it is deactivated for more than one month, it should be checked before use.
7. The mechanical equipment management personnel at the construction site shall conduct daily inspections on the mechanical equipment in use, and find that there are violations of post discipline, abnormal mechanical operation, poor maintenance, hidden dangers of accidents, incomplete records, etc., and measures shall be taken to correct or eliminate them immediately. And make a good inspection record.
8. The operator performs routine inspections every day. The contents of the inspection include: the safety performance of the limiter, brake, clutch, controller and interlocking device, communication device, alarm device and anti-breaking rope device, the safety condition of the track, the safety condition of the wire rope, the rigging and the spreader, Insulation and damage of the travel cable, lubrication of various parts, etc.
9. Large-scale construction projects and above should be equipped with full-time mechanical equipment management personnel, responsible for the correct use of mechanical equipment and safety supervision and inspection to ensure the safety of mechanical equipment and operators.
10. Mechanical management personnel must be familiar with the relevant safety technical standards, specifications, and regulations, and strictly enforce them. They must not be in violation of regulations; operators (including operators, commanders, maintenance personnel, cranes, electricians, etc.) must be familiar with relevant safety technologies. It is stipulated that the post responsibility system, safety operation procedures and safety system should be strictly observed, and work must not be carried out in violation of regulations; the work must be worn, worn with protective equipment and properly used safety equipment, and keep the work area clean and safe.
11. Special equipment operators shall, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State, pass the examination of the special equipment safety supervision and management department, and obtain the nationally authorized special operation personnel certificate before they can engage in the corresponding operation or management work.
The characteristics of the construction project are short construction period, heavy tasks, large changes in the project site, and large mobility of workers and machinery. The development and implementation of strict management systems and management measures are the basic requirements and guarantees for the safe construction of machinery and equipment. Â
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